By and large Paint is what gives colour to the built environment. And there are a few things you need to know about paint before you can score full marks with your fresh coat of paint you might wish to deploy on your new house or on the existing house that may have begun screaming for the long overdue makeover. First, painting a building demands that you must cover areas such windows and shutters that do not need to be painted, with masking tape. Depending on your budget , you may also need a respirator for ease of breathing because oil based paint has strong odours. You also need some canvass cloth to put underneath the work area to avoid staining the floor and landscaping.
Applying paint on the house interior or exterior can be done using brush, roller or spray. Working with brush is slow but can reach tight areas like corners. The roller is ideal for flat broad surfaces and is faster than using a brush. On the other extreme end , a spray is faster than a roller but consumes a lot of paint.
Paint is a blend of seven components, namely Binder ,Solvent, Base Extenders ,Pigments ,Driers and last but not least additives.The binder is the component of paint that solidifies to form the paint film. This is made from Linseed oils, Alkyd resins and vinyl and acrylic resins.
Solvent are the liquid component of paints and can be water or organic like petroleum.Acrylic latex paint is water-borne and is considered better that oil-borne paints because it does not emit strong smell, does not damage the environment , does not crack easily, can be cleaned using soap and water only instead of using thinner and can be deployed on any primer. On the slip side , oil based paints are good for high traffic areas like wooden stairs, cast iron railings and are known to penetrate deeply on surfaces such as wood. Paint thinners is also as solvent and is used to make the paint more fluid for ease of application.
The base material for most paints is white Titanium dioxide which make the paint hard to see through or opaque.
The density of paint is increased using Extenders such as silica, calcium carbonate and china clay . Colour is added to the paint using pigments which are as matter of fact mixtures of organic and inorganic dyes. And dries are used to ensure rapid drying of paint when applied on a surface.
In few words, the important thing to note is that ,Water-solvent paints are great because they have low odour ,brushes can be cleaned in water and tolerate damp surfaces. However they are no good for cold and wet external surfaces compared with oil solvent paint that do a great service under such conditions.
This refer to how the paint is deployed on surfaces. Paints systems may have three or four coats and each perform a specific function. A complete system requires a primer layer, under coat and finishing coat. In case of new external surfaces four coats are appropriate.
This is the first layer that is applied on a surface and must hold well on the substrate ,seal remaining moisture on the surface to prevent mildew, offer protection from corrosion and provide good smooth base for the under coat. To ensure there is robust adhesion , the surface must be cleaned to free it from loose materials like dust , mold , fungi, mildew and rust.
Under coat covers the primer layer and provide a good surface for a finishing coat.Under coat paint is made from alkyd resins or acrylic emulsions.
This coat must be durable and able to give decorative finish. The hard gloss, eggshell or satin finish paints are oil and alkyd resin based. On the other hand water solvent finishing paint tend to be visually softer and are porous to moisture, dry quickly, emit little odour and do not yellow on ageing. Matt and silk finishes are produce by a vinyl and acrylic emulsion paints.
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Sources: 1.Material for Architects and builders by Arthur Lyons